Main Article Content


Pregnancy is a significant event that causes changes both physically and psychologically among pregnant women. Hence, it can trigger symptomps of depression during pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that self-compassion significantly correlated with depression, as well as spirituality. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the role of self-compassion and spirituality toward depression among pregnant women simultaneously. The sample of this study was pregnant women who had completed Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), and Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) (n = 125). The result of multiple regression analysis showed that self-compassion and spirituality have significant roles in predicting depression among pregnant women simultaneously. A higher score of self-compassion could predict a lower score of depression, even when the score of spirituality was being controlled. The self-judgement and perception of transcendent events dimensions have significant contributions toward depression among pregnant women.


depression pregnant women self-compassion spirituality depresi ibu hamil self-compassion spiritualitas

Article Details

How to Cite
Chairunnisa, A., & Fourianalistyawati, E. (2020). The role of self-compassion and spirituality towards depression of pregnant women. Jurnal Psikologi Ulayat, 6(1), 14–36.


  1. Affonso, D. D., Lovett, S., Paul, S., Sheptak, S., Nussbaum, R., Newman, L., & Johnson, B. (1992). Dysphoric distress in childbearing women. Journal of Perinatology, 12(4),325-332.
  2. Akin, A., & Akin, U. (2015). Does self-compassion predict spiritual experiences of Turkish university students? Journal of Religion and Health, 56(1), 109-117. doi: 10.1007/s10943-015-0138-y
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). DSM-IV-TR: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., Text Revision). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Publishing.
  4. Bennet, H. A., Einarson, A., Taddio, A., Koren, G., & Einarson T. R. (2004). Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: Systematic review. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 103(4), 698-709. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000116689.75396.5f
  5. Bento, E., Xavier, S., Azevedo, J., Marques, M., Soares, M. J., Martins, M. J., ...& Pereira, A. T. (2016). The role of self-compassion in lifetime history of depression: A study in Portuguese pregnant women. Journal of European Psychiatry, 33. 416-417. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2016.01.1507
  6. Birndorf, C. A., Madden, A., Portera, L., & Leon, A. C. (2001). Psychiatric symptoms, functional impairment, and receptivity toward mental health treatment among obstetrical patients. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 31(4), 355-365. doi: 10.2190/5vpd-wgl1-mtwn-6ja6
  7. Birnie, K., Speca, M., & Carlson, L. E. (2010). Exploring self-compassion and empathy in the context of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 26(5), 359-371. doi: 10.1002/smi.1305
  8. Boscaglia, N., Clarke, D. M., Jobling, T. W., & Quinn, M. A. (2005). The contribution of spirituality and spiritual coping to anxiety and depression in women with a recent diagnosis of gynecological cancer. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, 15(5), 755-761. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1438.2005.00248.x
  9. Boyce, P., Condon, J., Barton, J., & Corkindale, C. (2007). First-time fathers’ study: Psychological distress in expectant fathers during pregnancy. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41(9), 718-725. doi: 10.1080/00048670701517959
  10. Brown, J. E., & Toma, R. B. (1986). Taste changes during pregnancy. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 43(3), 414-418. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/43.3.414
  11. Carver, C. S., & Gaines, J. G. (1987). Optimism, pessimism, and postpartum depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 11(4), 449-462.
  12. Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M., & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The British Journal of Psychiatry, 150(6), 782-786. doi: 10.1192/bjp.150.6.782
  13. Dinn, R. B., Harris, A., & Marcus, P. S. (2003). Ocular changes in pregnancy. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 58(2), 137-144. doi: 10.1097/01.OGX.0000047741.79433.52
  14. Dumont, M., & Provost, M. A. (1999). Resilience in adolescents: Protective role of social support, coping strategies, self-esteem, and social activities on experience of stress and depression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 28(3), 343-363. doi: 10.1023/a:1021637011732
  15. Ellison, C. W. (1983). Spiritual well-being: Conceptualization and measurement. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 11(4), 330-340. doi: 10.1177/009164718301100406
  16. Evans, J., Heron, J., Francomb, H., Oke, S., & Golding, J. (2001). Cohort study of depressed mood during pregnancy and after childbirth. British Medical Journal, 323(7307), 257-260. doi: 10.1136/bmj.323.7307.257
  17. Febrinabilah, R. (2016). Hubungan antara self-compassion dengan resiliensi pada mantan pecandu narkoba dewasa awal (Skripsi yang tidak dipublikasikan). Fakultas Psikologi Universitas YARSI Jakarta, Indonesia.
  18. Felder, J. N., Lemon, E., Shea, K., Kripke, K., & Dimidjian, S. (2016). Role of self-compassion in psychological well-being among perinatal women. Archives Women’s Mental Health, 19(4), 687-690. doi: 10.1007/s00737-016-0628-2
  19. Fontana, D. (2003). Psychology, religion, and spirituality. Malden, MA: BPS Blackwell.
  20. Gavin, N. I., Gaynes, B. N., Lohr, K. N., Meltzer-Brody, S., Gartlehner, G., & Swinson, T. (2005). Perinatal depression: A systematic review of prevalence and incidence. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 106(5), 1071-1083. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000183597.31630.db
  21. Gilbert, P., & Procter, S. (2006). Compassionate mind training for people with high shame and self-criticism: Overview and pilot study of a group therapy approach. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 13(6), 353-379. doi: 10.1002/cpp.507
  22. Goodenough, U. (2001). Vertical and horizontal transcendence. Zygon, 36(1), 21-31. doi: 10.1111/0591-2385.00337
  23. Grote, N. K., Bridge, J. A., Gavin, A. R., Melville, J. L., Iyengar, S., & Katon, W. J. (2010). A meta-analysis of depression during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 67(10), 1012-1024. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.111
  24. Hayes, B. A., Muller, R., & Bradley, B. S. (2001). Perinatal depression: A randomized control trial of an antenatal education intervention for primiparas. Birth, 28(1), 28-35. doi: 10.1046/j.1523536x.2001.00028.x
  25. Jesse, D. E., Schoneboom, C., & Blanchard, A. (2007). The effect of faith or spirituality in pregnancy. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 25(3), 151-158. doi: 10.1177/0898010106293593
  26. Josefsson, A., Berg, G., Nordin, C., & Sydsj?, G. (2001). Prevalence of depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and postpartum. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 80(3), 251-255. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0412.2001.080003251.x
  27. Karacam, Z., & Ancel, G. (2009). Depression, anxiety and influencing factors in pregnancy: A study in a Turkish population. Midwifery, 25(4), 344-356. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2007.03.006
  28. King, P. E. (2003). Religion and identity: The role of ideological, social, and spiritual contexts. Applied Developmental Science, 7(3), 197-204. doi: 10.1207/S1532480XADS0703_11
  29. Koenig, H. G. (2010). Spirituality and mental health. International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 7(2), 116-122. doi: 10.1002/aps.239
  30. Krieger, T., Altenstein, D., Baettig, I., Doerig, N., & Holtforth, M.
  31. G. (2013). Self-compassion in depression: Associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and avoidance in depressed outpatients. Behavior Therapy, 44(3), 501-513. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2013.04.004
  32. Kroelinger, C. D., & Oths, K. S. (2000). Partner support and pregnancy wantedness. Birth, 27(2), 112-119. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-536x.2000.00112.x
  33. Krok, D. (2008). The role of spirituality in coping: Examining the relationships between spiritual dimensions and coping styles. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 11(7), 643-653. doi: 10.1080/13674670801930429
  34. Krucik, G. (2012). How “baby” changes the body: See the power of pregnancy. Ditemu kembali dari dari
  35. Leary, M. R., Tate, E. B., Adams, C. E., Allen, A. B., & Hancock, J. (2007). Self-compassion and reactions to unpleasant self-relevant events: The implications of treating oneself kindly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(5), 887-904. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.92.5.887
  36. Luoma, I., Tamminen, T., Kaukonen, P., Laippala, P., Puura, K., Salmelin, R., & Almqvist, F. (2001). Longitudinal study of maternal depressive symptoms and child well-being. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(12), 1367-1374. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200112000-00006
  37. Mann, J. R., Mckeown, R. E., Bacon, J., Vesselinov, R., & Bush, F. (2007). Religiosity, spirituality, and depressive symptoms in pregnant women. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 37(3), 301-313. doi: 10.2190/PM.37.3.g
  38. Marcus, S. M. (2009). Depression during pregnancy: Rates, risks, and consequences. Can J Clin Pharmacol, 16(1), e15-e22.
  39. Miller, W. R., & Thoresen, C. E. (2003). Spirituality, religion, and health: An emerging research field. American Psychologist, 58(1), 24-35. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.58.1.24
  40. Neff, K. D. (2003a). The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity, 2(3), 223-250. doi: 10.1080/15298860309027
  41. Neff, K. D. (2003b). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and Identity, 2(2), 85-101. doi: 10.1080/15298860390129863
  42. Neff, K. D., Rude, S. S., & Kirkpatrick, K. L. (2007). An examination of self-compassion in relation to positive psychological functioning and personality traits. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(4), 908-916. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2006.08.002
  43. Nelson, C., Jacobson, C. M., Weinberger, M. I., Bhaskaran, V., Rosenfeld, B., Breitbart, W., & Roth, A. J. (2009). The role of spirituality in the relationship between religiosity and depression in prostate cancer patients. Annals Behavioral Medicine, 38(2), 105-114. doi: 10.1007/s12160-009-9139-y
  44. O’Hara, M. W. (1986). Social support, life events, and depression during pregnancy and the puerperium. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43(6), 569-573. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1986.01800060063008
  45. Oltmanns, T. F., & Emery, R. E. (2013). Psikologi abnormal. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Belajar.
  46. Pajulo, M., Savonlahti, E., Sourander, A., Helenius, H., & Piha, J. (2001). Antenatal depression, substance dependency, and social support. Journal of Affective Disorders, 65(1), 9-17.
  47. Raes, F. (2010). Rumination and worry as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depression and anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(6), 757-761. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.01.023
  48. Rasmussen, H. N., Wrosch, C., Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (2006). Self-regulation processes and health: The importance of optimism and goal adjustment. Journal of Personality, 74(6), 1721-1748. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00426.x
  49. Rimes, K. A., & Watkins, E. (2005). The effects of self-focused rumination on global negative self-judgements in depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43(12), 1673-1681. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2004.12.002
  50. Roomruangwong, C., & Epperson, C. N. (2011). Perinatal depression in Asian women: Prevalence, associated factors, and cultural aspects. Asian Biomedicine, 5(2), 179-193. doi: 10.5372/1905-7415.0502.024
  51. Ross, L. E., Sellers, E. M., Evans, S. E. G., & Romach, M. K. (2004). Mood changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period: Development of a biopsychosocial model. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 109(6), 457-466. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0047.2004.00296.x
  52. Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J., & Robins, E. (1978). Research diagnostic criteria: Rationale and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35(6), 773-782. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1978.01770300115013
  53. Staton-Tindall, M., Duvall, J., Stevens-Watkins, D., & Oser, C. B. (2013). The role of spirituality in the relationship between traumatic life events, mental health, and drug use among African American women from one southern state. Substance Use & Misuse, 48(12), 1246-1257. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2013.799023
  54. Sugiyono. (2010). Metode penelitian kuantitatif, kualitatif, dan R&D. Bandung: Penerbit Alfabeta.
  55. Tunzi, M., & Gray, G. R. (2007). Common skin conditions during pregnancy. American Family Physician, 75(2), 211-218.
  56. Underwood, L. G., & Teresi, J. A. (2002). The daily spiritual experience scale: Development, theoretical description, reliability, exploratory factor analysis, and preliminary construct validity using health-related data. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24(1), 22-33. doi: 10.1207/s15324796abm2401_04
  57. Van Dam, N. T., Sheppard, S. C., Forsyth, J. P., & Earleywine, M. (2011). Self-compassion is a better predictor than mindfulness of symptom severity and quality of life in mixed anxiety and depression. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25(1), 123-130. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.08.011
  58. Wispe, L. (1991). The psychology of sympathy. New York, NY: Plenum Press.