The role of self-compassion and spirituality towards depression of pregnant women


  • Alfira Chairunnisa Faculty of Psychology, Universitas YARSI, Indonesia
  • Endang Fourianalistyawati Faculty of Psychology, Universitas YARSI, Indonesia


depression, pregnant women, self-compassion, spirituality


Pregnancy is a significant event that causes changes both physically and psychologically among pregnant women. Hence, it can trigger symptomps of depression during pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that self-compassion significantly correlated with depression, as well as spirituality. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the role of self-compassion and spirituality toward depression among pregnant women simultaneously. The sample of this study was pregnant women who had completed Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), and Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) (n = 125). The result of multiple regression analysis showed that self-compassion and spirituality have significant roles in predicting depression among pregnant women simultaneously. A higher score of self-compassion could predict a lower score of depression, even when the score of spirituality was being controlled. The self-judgement and perception of transcendent events dimensions have significant contributions toward depression among pregnant women.


Download data is not yet available.


Affonso, D. D., Lovett, S., Paul, S., Sheptak, S., Nussbaum, R., Newman, L., & Johnson, B. (1992). Dysphoric distress in childbearing women. Journal of Perinatology, 12(4),325-332.

Akin, A., & Akin, U. (2015). Does self-compassion predict spiritual experiences of Turkish university students? Journal of Religion and Health, 56(1), 109-117. doi: 10.1007/s10943-015-0138-y

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). DSM-IV-TR: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., Text Revision). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Publishing.

Bennet, H. A., Einarson, A., Taddio, A., Koren, G., & Einarson T. R. (2004). Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: Systematic review. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 103(4), 698-709. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000116689.75396.5f

Bento, E., Xavier, S., Azevedo, J., Marques, M., Soares, M. J., Martins, M. J., ...& Pereira, A. T. (2016). The role of self-compassion in lifetime history of depression: A study in Portuguese pregnant women. Journal of European Psychiatry, 33. 416-417. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2016.01.1507

Birndorf, C. A., Madden, A., Portera, L., & Leon, A. C. (2001). Psychiatric symptoms, functional impairment, and receptivity toward mental health treatment among obstetrical patients. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 31(4), 355-365. doi: 10.2190/5vpd-wgl1-mtwn-6ja6

Birnie, K., Speca, M., & Carlson, L. E. (2010). Exploring self-compassion and empathy in the context of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 26(5), 359-371. doi: 10.1002/smi.1305

Boscaglia, N., Clarke, D. M., Jobling, T. W., & Quinn, M. A. (2005). The contribution of spirituality and spiritual coping to anxiety and depression in women with a recent diagnosis of gynecological cancer. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, 15(5), 755-761. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1438.2005.00248.x

Boyce, P., Condon, J., Barton, J., & Corkindale, C. (2007). First-time fathers’ study: Psychological distress in expectant fathers during pregnancy. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41(9), 718-725. doi: 10.1080/00048670701517959

Brown, J. E., & Toma, R. B. (1986). Taste changes during pregnancy. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 43(3), 414-418. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/43.3.414

Carver, C. S., & Gaines, J. G. (1987). Optimism, pessimism, and postpartum depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 11(4), 449-462.

Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M., & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The British Journal of Psychiatry, 150(6), 782-786. doi: 10.1192/bjp.150.6.782

Dinn, R. B., Harris, A., & Marcus, P. S. (2003). Ocular changes in pregnancy. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 58(2), 137-144. doi: 10.1097/01.OGX.0000047741.79433.52

Dumont, M., & Provost, M. A. (1999). Resilience in adolescents: Protective role of social support, coping strategies, self-esteem, and social activities on experience of stress and depression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 28(3), 343-363. doi: 10.1023/a:1021637011732

Ellison, C. W. (1983). Spiritual well-being: Conceptualization and measurement. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 11(4), 330-340. doi: 10.1177/009164718301100406

Evans, J., Heron, J., Francomb, H., Oke, S., & Golding, J. (2001). Cohort study of depressed mood during pregnancy and after childbirth. British Medical Journal, 323(7307), 257-260. doi: 10.1136/bmj.323.7307.257

Febrinabilah, R. (2016). Hubungan antara self-compassion dengan resiliensi pada mantan pecandu narkoba dewasa awal (Skripsi yang tidak dipublikasikan). Fakultas Psikologi Universitas YARSI Jakarta, Indonesia.

Felder, J. N., Lemon, E., Shea, K., Kripke, K., & Dimidjian, S. (2016). Role of self-compassion in psychological well-being among perinatal women. Archives Women’s Mental Health, 19(4), 687-690. doi: 10.1007/s00737-016-0628-2

Fontana, D. (2003). Psychology, religion, and spirituality. Malden, MA: BPS Blackwell.

Gavin, N. I., Gaynes, B. N., Lohr, K. N., Meltzer-Brody, S., Gartlehner, G., & Swinson, T. (2005). Perinatal depression: A systematic review of prevalence and incidence. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 106(5), 1071-1083. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000183597.31630.db

Gilbert, P., & Procter, S. (2006). Compassionate mind training for people with high shame and self-criticism: Overview and pilot study of a group therapy approach. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 13(6), 353-379. doi: 10.1002/cpp.507

Goodenough, U. (2001). Vertical and horizontal transcendence. Zygon, 36(1), 21-31. doi: 10.1111/0591-2385.00337

Grote, N. K., Bridge, J. A., Gavin, A. R., Melville, J. L., Iyengar, S., & Katon, W. J. (2010). A meta-analysis of depression during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 67(10), 1012-1024. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.111

Hayes, B. A., Muller, R., & Bradley, B. S. (2001). Perinatal depression: A randomized control trial of an antenatal education intervention for primiparas. Birth, 28(1), 28-35. doi: 10.1046/j.1523536x.2001.00028.x

Jesse, D. E., Schoneboom, C., & Blanchard, A. (2007). The effect of faith or spirituality in pregnancy. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 25(3), 151-158. doi: 10.1177/0898010106293593

Josefsson, A., Berg, G., Nordin, C., & Sydsj?, G. (2001). Prevalence of depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and postpartum. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 80(3), 251-255. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0412.2001.080003251.x

Karacam, Z., & Ancel, G. (2009). Depression, anxiety and influencing factors in pregnancy: A study in a Turkish population. Midwifery, 25(4), 344-356. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2007.03.006

King, P. E. (2003). Religion and identity: The role of ideological, social, and spiritual contexts. Applied Developmental Science, 7(3), 197-204. doi: 10.1207/S1532480XADS0703_11

Koenig, H. G. (2010). Spirituality and mental health. International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 7(2), 116-122. doi: 10.1002/aps.239

Krieger, T., Altenstein, D., Baettig, I., Doerig, N., & Holtforth, M.

G. (2013). Self-compassion in depression: Associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and avoidance in depressed outpatients. Behavior Therapy, 44(3), 501-513. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2013.04.004

Kroelinger, C. D., & Oths, K. S. (2000). Partner support and pregnancy wantedness. Birth, 27(2), 112-119. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-536x.2000.00112.x

Krok, D. (2008). The role of spirituality in coping: Examining the relationships between spiritual dimensions and coping styles. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 11(7), 643-653. doi: 10.1080/13674670801930429

Krucik, G. (2012). How “baby” changes the body: See the power of pregnancy. Ditemu kembali dari dari

Leary, M. R., Tate, E. B., Adams, C. E., Allen, A. B., & Hancock, J. (2007). Self-compassion and reactions to unpleasant self-relevant events: The implications of treating oneself kindly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(5), 887-904. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.92.5.887

Luoma, I., Tamminen, T., Kaukonen, P., Laippala, P., Puura, K., Salmelin, R., & Almqvist, F. (2001). Longitudinal study of maternal depressive symptoms and child well-being. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(12), 1367-1374. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200112000-00006

Mann, J. R., Mckeown, R. E., Bacon, J., Vesselinov, R., & Bush, F. (2007). Religiosity, spirituality, and depressive symptoms in pregnant women. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 37(3), 301-313. doi: 10.2190/PM.37.3.g

Marcus, S. M. (2009). Depression during pregnancy: Rates, risks, and consequences. Can J Clin Pharmacol, 16(1), e15-e22.

Miller, W. R., & Thoresen, C. E. (2003). Spirituality, religion, and health: An emerging research field. American Psychologist, 58(1), 24-35. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.58.1.24

Neff, K. D. (2003a). The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity, 2(3), 223-250. doi: 10.1080/15298860309027

Neff, K. D. (2003b). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and Identity, 2(2), 85-101. doi: 10.1080/15298860390129863

Neff, K. D., Rude, S. S., & Kirkpatrick, K. L. (2007). An examination of self-compassion in relation to positive psychological functioning and personality traits. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(4), 908-916. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2006.08.002

Nelson, C., Jacobson, C. M., Weinberger, M. I., Bhaskaran, V., Rosenfeld, B., Breitbart, W., & Roth, A. J. (2009). The role of spirituality in the relationship between religiosity and depression in prostate cancer patients. Annals Behavioral Medicine, 38(2), 105-114. doi: 10.1007/s12160-009-9139-y

O’Hara, M. W. (1986). Social support, life events, and depression during pregnancy and the puerperium. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43(6), 569-573. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1986.01800060063008

Oltmanns, T. F., & Emery, R. E. (2013). Psikologi abnormal. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Belajar.

Pajulo, M., Savonlahti, E., Sourander, A., Helenius, H., & Piha, J. (2001). Antenatal depression, substance dependency, and social support. Journal of Affective Disorders, 65(1), 9-17.

Raes, F. (2010). Rumination and worry as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depression and anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(6), 757-761. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.01.023

Rasmussen, H. N., Wrosch, C., Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (2006). Self-regulation processes and health: The importance of optimism and goal adjustment. Journal of Personality, 74(6), 1721-1748. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00426.x

Rimes, K. A., & Watkins, E. (2005). The effects of self-focused rumination on global negative self-judgements in depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43(12), 1673-1681. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2004.12.002

Roomruangwong, C., & Epperson, C. N. (2011). Perinatal depression in Asian women: Prevalence, associated factors, and cultural aspects. Asian Biomedicine, 5(2), 179-193. doi: 10.5372/1905-7415.0502.024

Ross, L. E., Sellers, E. M., Evans, S. E. G., & Romach, M. K. (2004). Mood changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period: Development of a biopsychosocial model. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 109(6), 457-466. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0047.2004.00296.x

Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J., & Robins, E. (1978). Research diagnostic criteria: Rationale and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35(6), 773-782. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1978.01770300115013

Staton-Tindall, M., Duvall, J., Stevens-Watkins, D., & Oser, C. B. (2013). The role of spirituality in the relationship between traumatic life events, mental health, and drug use among African American women from one southern state. Substance Use & Misuse, 48(12), 1246-1257. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2013.799023

Sugiyono. (2010). Metode penelitian kuantitatif, kualitatif, dan R&D. Bandung: Penerbit Alfabeta.

Tunzi, M., & Gray, G. R. (2007). Common skin conditions during pregnancy. American Family Physician, 75(2), 211-218.

Underwood, L. G., & Teresi, J. A. (2002). The daily spiritual experience scale: Development, theoretical description, reliability, exploratory factor analysis, and preliminary construct validity using health-related data. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24(1), 22-33. doi: 10.1207/s15324796abm2401_04

Van Dam, N. T., Sheppard, S. C., Forsyth, J. P., & Earleywine, M. (2011). Self-compassion is a better predictor than mindfulness of symptom severity and quality of life in mixed anxiety and depression. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25(1), 123-130. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.08.011

Wispe, L. (1991). The psychology of sympathy. New York, NY: Plenum Press.



How to Cite

Chairunnisa, A., & Fourianalistyawati, E. (2019). The role of self-compassion and spirituality towards depression of pregnant women. Jurnal Psikologi Ulayat, 6(1), 14–36.



Original Research

Citation Check