Gratitude, perceived social support, and students' resilience during distance learning due to COVID-19


  • Nurul Fitroh Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
  • Winarini Wilman D. Mansoer Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia


distance learning, gratitude, perceived social support, student resilience, COVID-19


The COVID-19 pandemic changed many aspects of life, including learning process. Distance learning has been implemented as a response to the pandemic. These changes have a psychological impact on students. This study aims to explore the role of gratitude as a mediator in the relationship between social support and resiliency among students during distance learning. This study used quantitative method to 42 students (M=21,5). The study found that, while gratitude is not meaningful mediating variabel accounting for the relationship between social support and resilience, perceived social support predicts higher levels of resilience and gratitude among students participating in distance learning. While few participants reported that they adjusted well with the shift of learning mode, common challenges faced by participants which necessitates resilience in distance learning include: less enthusiasm in learning due to limited social interaction, poor time management, and exhaustion due to prolong exposure to screen.


Download data is not yet available.


Ardan, M., Rahman, F. F., & Geroda, G. B. (2020). The influence of physical distance to student anxiety on COVID-19, Indonesia. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(17), 1126–1132.

Beaton, D. E., Bombardier, C., Guillemin, F., & Ferraz, M. B. (2000). Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine, 25(24), 3186–3191.

Bono, G., Reil, K., & Hescox, J. (2020). Stress and wellbeing in urban college students in the US during the COVID-19 pandemic: Can grit and gratitude help?. International Journal of Wellbeing, 10(3), 39–57.

Butler, J., & Jaffe, S. (2021). Challenges and gratitude: A diary study of software engineers working from home during COVID-19 pandemic. ICSE-SEIP’21: Proceedings of the 43rd international conference on software engineering: Software engineering in practice. ACM Digital Library.

Büssing, A., Rodrigues Recchia, D., Dienberg, T., Surzykiewicz, J., & Baumann, K. (2021). Awe/gratitude as an experiential aspect of spirituality and its association to perceived positive changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, Article 642716.

Browning, M. H. E. M., Larson, L. R., Sharaievska, I., Rigolon, A., McAnirlin, O., Mullenbach, L., Cloutier, S., Vu, T. M., Thomsen, J., Reigner, N., Metcalf, E. C., D'Antonio, A., Helbich, M., Bratman, G. N., & Alvarez, H. O. (2021). Psychological impacts from COVID-19 among university students: Risk factors across seven states in the United States. PLoS ONE, 16(1), Article e0245327.

Campbell‐Sills, L., & Stein, M. B. (2007). Psychometric analysis and refinement of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD‐RISC): Validation of a 10‐item measure of resilience. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(6), 1019–1028.

Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong, J., & Zheng, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Research, 287, 112934.

Chen, S. (2019). Chinese adolescents’ emotional intelligence, perceived social support, and resilience—The impact of school type selection. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1299.

Churiyah, M., Sholikhan, S., Filianti, F., & Sakdiyyah, D. A. (2020). Indonesia education readiness conducting distance learning in Covid-19 pandemic situation. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 7(6), 491-507.

Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor‐Davidson Resilience Scale (CD‐RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18(2), 76–82.

Fischer, C., Siegel, J., Proeller, I., & Drathschmidt, N. (2022). Resilience through digitalisation: How individual and organisational resources affect public employees working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic. Public Management Review, 1–28.

Hamdan-Mansour, A. M., Azzeghaiby, S. N., Alzoghaibi, I. N., Al Badawi, T. H., Nassar, O. S., & Shaheen, A. M. (2014). Correlates of resilience among university students. American Journal of Nursing Research, 2(4), 74–79.

Hwei, L. K., & Abdullah, H. S. (2013). Acceptance, forgiveness, and gratitude: Predictors of resilience among university students. MOJPC: Malaysia Online Journal of Psychology & Counselling, 1(1), 1–23.

Huang, L., & Zhang, T. (2021). Perceived social support, psychological capital, and subjective well-being among college students in the context of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 31(3), 1–12.

Islam, M. S., Sujan, M. S. H., Tasnim, R., Sikder, M. T., Potenza, M. N., & Van Os, J. (2020). Psychological responses during the COVID-19 outbreak among university students in Bangladesh. PLoS ONE, 15(12), e0245083.

Jans-Beken, L. (2021). A perspective on mature gratitude as a way of coping with COVID-19. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 632911. 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.632911

Kumalasari, D., & Akmal, S. Z. (2020). Resiliensi akademik dan kepuasan belajar daring di masa pandemi COVID-19: Peran mediasi kesiapan belajar daring. Persona: Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia, 9(2), 353–368.

Listiyandini, R. A. (2018). The influence of gratitude on psychological resilience of adolescence living in youth social care institutions. Journal of Educational, Health and Community Psychology, 7(3), 197–208.

Lupe, S. E., Keefer, L., & Szigethy, E. (2020). Gaining resilience and reducing stress in the age of COVID-19. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, 36(4), 295–303.

Masten, A. S., & Reed, M.-G. J. (2002). Resilience in development. Dalam C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (hlm. 74–88). Oxford University Press.

McCanlies, E. C., Gu, J. K., Andrew, M. E., & Violanti, J. M. (2018). The effect of social support, gratitude, resilience and satisfaction with life on depressive symptoms among police officers following Hurricane Katrina. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 64(1), 63–72.

McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. A. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(1), 112–127.

Narayanan, S. S., & Weng Onn, A. C. (2016). The influence of perceived social support and self-efficacy on resilience among first year Malaysian students. Kajian Malaysia, 34(2), 1–23.

Odriozola-González, P., Planchuelo-Gómez, Á., Irurtia, M. J., & de Luis-García, R. (2020). Psychological effects of the COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown among students and workers of a Spanish university. Psychiatry Research, 290, 113108.

Prime, H., Wade, M., & Browne, D. T. (2020). Risk and resilience in family well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. American Psychologist, 75(5), 631–643.

Rosenberg, A. R. (2020). Cultivating deliberate resilience during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. JAMA Pediatrics, 174(9), 817–818.

Reivich, K., & Shatté, A. (2003). 7 keys to finding your inner strength and overcoming life's hurdles. Broadway Books.

Sari, S. P., Aryansah, J. E., & Sari, K. (2020). Resiliensi mahasiswa dalam menghadapi pandemi COVID-19 dan implikasinya terhadap proses pembelajaran. Indonesian Journal of Guidance and Counseling: Theory and Application, 9(1), 17–22.

Terrill, A. L., Molton, I. R., Ehde, D. M., Amtmann, D., Bombardier, C. H., Smith, A. E., & Jensen, M. P. (2016). Resilience, age, and perceived symptoms in persons with long-term physical disabilities. Journal of Health Psychology, 21(5), 640–649.

Wilks, S. E. (2008). Resilience amid academic stress: The moderating impact of social support among social work students. Advances in Social Work, 9(2), 106–125.

Wilks, S. E., & Spivey, C. A. (2010). Resilience in undergraduate social work students: Social support and adjustment to academic stress. Social Work Education, 29(3), 276–288.

Wood, A. M., Froh, J. J., & Geraghty, A. W. (2010). Gratitude and well-being: A review and theoretical integration. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 890–905.

Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52(1), 30–41.



How to Cite

Fitroh, N., & Mansoer, W. W. D. (2024). Gratitude, perceived social support, and students’ resilience during distance learning due to COVID-19. Jurnal Psikologi Ulayat.



Original Research

Citation Check