Online learning readiness and well being of Indonesian college students during the pandemic: Academic stress as a moderator
Keywords:academic stress, college student well-being, online learning readiness, pandemic
The pandemic forces students to change their learning process from face to face into online learning. Not all students demonstrate readiness to overcome this pandemic and some of them experience academic pressure. This study aims to investigate whether stress caused by online learning is a moderator of the relationship between online learning readiness and college students’ well-being amid COVID-19 pandemic. Participants of this study were 293 undergraduate students (Mage = 20.42, SD = 1.87) hired using accidental sampling methods. The variables were measured through College Student Subjective Well-Being Questionnaire, Online Learning Readiness Scale, Stressor Scale for College Student (Study-Related Stressor subscale). Results showed that academic stress reduces the positive effect of online learning readiness toward college students’ well-being. The theoretical and practical implications are further discussed.
Aherne, D., Farrant, K., Hickey, L., Hickey, E., McGrath, L., & McGrath, D. (2016). Mindfulness based stress reduction for medical students: Optimising student satisfaction and engagement. BMC Medical Education, 16(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-016-0728-8
Akmal, S. Z. (2018). Adaptabilitas karier dan well-being pada mahasiswa tahun pertama. Dalam W. Mangudjaya, N., Effendy, A. R., Saleh, R., & Amir, T. (Eds.), Positive Psychology in Dealing with Multigeneration (pp. 543–553). HIMPSI, Jakarta. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329058051_Adaptabilitas_Karier_dan_Well_Being_pada_Mahasiswa_Tahun_Pertama
Andiarna, F., & Kusumawati, E. (2020). Effects of online learning on student academic stress during the Covid-19 pandemic. Jurnal Psikologi, 16(2), 139–150. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.24014/ jp.v14i2.9221
Asih, S. R., & Yovita, M. (2017). Diversity in unity: Perspectives from psychology and behavioral sciences. In A. A. Ariyanto, H. Muluk, P. Newcombe, F. P. Piercy, E. K. Poerwandari, & S. H. R. Suradijono (Eds.), Diversity in Unity: Perspectives from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315225302
Beaton, D., Bombardier, C., Guillemin, F., & Ferraz, M. B. (2000). Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. SPINE, 25(24), 3186–3191. https://doi.org/10.1080/000163599428823
Busari, A. O. (2017). The relationship between personality types, learning styles, motivation, self-esteem and academic stress among distance learners in ibadan study centre. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Study, 19(4), 850–862.
Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong, J., & Zheng, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Research, 287(March), 112934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112934
Chraif, M. (2015). Correlative study between academic satisfaction, workload and level of academic stress at 3rd grade students at psychology. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 203(1994), 419–424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.08.317
Coopasami, M., Knight, S., & Pete, M. (2017). e-Learning readiness amongst nursing students at the Durban University of Technology. Health SA Gesondheid, 22, 300–306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hsag.2017.04.003
Crawford, N. (2020). Supporting student wellbeing during COVID-19: Tips from regional and remote Australia. National Centre for Student Equity in Higher Education, Curtin University, 1–8. https://www.ncsehe.edu.au/student-wellbeing-covid-19-regional-remote-australia/
Furlonger, B., & Gencic, E. (2014). Comparing satisfaction, life-stress, coping and academic performance of counselling students in on-campus and distance education learning environments. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, June, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1017/jgc.2014.2
Gadzella, B. M. (1994). Student-life stress inventory: Identification of and reactions to stressors. Psychological Reports, 74(2), 395–402. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19188.8.131.525
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to Mediation, Moderation and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach. The Guilford Press.
Heo, J. C., & Han, S. (2018). Effects of motivation, academic stress and age in predicting self-directed learning readiness ( SDLR ): Focused on online college students. Education and Information Technologies, 23(1), 61–71. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-017-9585-2
Hung, M. L., Chou, C., Chen, C. H., & Own, Z. Y. (2010). Learner readiness for online learning: Scale development and student perceptions. Computers and Education, 55(3), 1080–1090. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.05.004
Issa, R., & Jaaron, A. A. M. (2017). Measuring e-learning readiness: The case of Palestinian public secondary schools. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 9(4), 319–338. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJTEL.2017.087792
Joosten, T., Cusatis, R., & Cusatis, R. (2020). Online learning readiness. American Journal of Distance Education, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2020.1726167
Kim, H. J., Hong, A. J., & Song, H. D. (2019). The roles of academic engagement and digital readiness in students’ achievements in university e-learning environments. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 16(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-019-0152-3
Kumalasari, D., & Akmal, S. Z. (2020). Resiliensi akademik dan kepuasan belajar daring di masa pandemi COVID-19: Peran mediasi kesiapan belajar daring. Persona: Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia, 9(2), 353–368. https://doi.org/10.30996/persona.v9i2.4139
Lee, J., & Jang, S. (2015). An exploration of stress and satisfaction in college students. Services Marketing Quarterly, 36(3), 245–260. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332969.2015.1046774
Liu, N., Zhang, F., Wei, C., Jia, Y., Shang, Z., Sun, L., Wu, L., Sun, Z., Zhou, Y., Wang, Y., & Liu, W. (2020). Prevalence and predictors of PTSS during COVID-19 outbreak in China hardest-hit areas: Gender differences matter. Psychiatry Research, 287(March), 112921. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112921
Munir, T., Shafiq, S., Ahmad, Z., & Khan, S. (2015). Impact of loneliness and academic stress on psychological well being among college students. Academic Research International, 6(March), 343–355.
Nasrul, D. F., Afnibar, & Rahmi, A. (2020). Psychological well being mahasiswa dalam menjalani kuliah daring untuk mencegah penyebaran virus corona (Studi terhadap mahasiswa bimbingan konseling Islam UIN Imam Bonjol Padang). Al Irsyad: Jurnal Bimbingan Konseling Islam, 11(1), 15–22. https://www.ejournal.uinib.ac.id/jurnal/index.php/alirsyad/article/view/1510
Oktawirawan, D. H. (2020). Faktor pemicu kecemasan siswa dalam melakukan pembelajaran daring di masa pandemi COVID-19. Jurnal Ilmiah Universitas Batanghari Jambi, 20(2), 541. https://doi.org/10.33087/jiubj.v20i2.932
Ota, A., Li, Y., Masuda, A., Yabashi, A., Morita, M., Minagawa, A., & Yatsuya, H. (2016). Validity and reliability of the modified stressor scale for college student among medical and medical science students in a private university in Japan. Fujita Medical Journal, 2(2), 25–30. https://doi.org/10.20407/fmj.2.2_25
Pfefferbaum, B., & North, C. S. (2020). Mental health and the COVID-19 pandemic. The New England Journal of Medicine, June, 1–3.
Rajkumar, R. P. (2020). COVID-19 and mental health: A review of the existing literature. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 52(March), 102066. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102066
Renshaw, T. L. (2018). Psychometrics of the revised college student subjective wellbeing questionnaire. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 33(2), 136–149. https://doi.org/10.1177/0829573516678704
Renshaw, T. L., & Bolognino, S. J. (2016). The college student subjective wellbeing questionnaire: A brief, multidimensional measure of undergraduate’s covitality. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(2), 463–484. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-014-9606-4
Rohayani, A. H. H., Kurniabudi, & Sharipuddin. (2015). A literature review: Readiness factors to measuring e-learning readiness in higher education. Procedia Computer Science, 59(Iccsci), 230–234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2015.07.564
Rosali, E. S. (2020). Aktivitas pembelajaran daring pada masa pandemi COVID-19 di jurusan pendidikan geografi Universitas Siliwangi Tasikmalaya. Geography Science Education Explored Journal (GEOSEE), 1(1), 21–30.
Sahu, P. (2020). Closure of universities due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Impact on education and mental health of students and academic staff. Cureus, 2019(4), 4–9. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7541
Suldo, S., Thalji, A., & Ferron, J. (2011). Longitudinal academic outcomes predicted by early adolescents’ subjective well-being, psychopathology, and mental health status yielded from a dual factor model. Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(1), 17–30. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2010.536774
Sun, J., Dunne, M. P., Hou, X. yu, & Xu, A. qiang. (2011). Educational stress scale for adolescents: Development, validity, and reliability with Chinese students. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 29(6), 534–546. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282910394976
Taris, T. W., & Kompier, M. A. (2006). Games researchers play — extreme-groups analysis and mediation analysis in longitudinal occupational health research. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 32(6), 463–472. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40967598
Wei, H., & Chou, C. (2020). Online learning performance and satisfaction : do perceptions and readiness matter ? Distance Education, 41, 48–69. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2020.1724768
Yilmaz, R. (2017). Exploring the role of e-learning readiness on student satisfaction and motivation in flipped classroom. Computers in Human Behavior, 70, 251–260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.12.085
Yuen, M., Lau, P. S. Y., Lee, Q. A. Y., Gysbers, N. C., Chan, R. M. C., Fong, R. W., Chung, Y. B., & Shea, P. M. K. (2012). Factors influencing school connectedness: Chinese adolescents’ perspectives. Asia Pacific Education Review, 13(1), 55–63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-011-9176-7
Zhai, Y., & Du, X. (2020). Addressing collegiate mental health amid COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatry Research, 288, 113003. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113003
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Sari Zakiah Akmal, Dewi Kumalasari
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The authors agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) for the exposure of their work with an acknowledgement of Jurnal Psikologi Ulayat: Indonesian Journal of Indigenous Psychology (JPU) as an outlet of their published work.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.