Main Article Content

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the relationship between servant leadership and employee creativity through innovative culture. This study was conducted in a cross-sectional design through an online survey towards BUMN employees from various sectors who were working from home (N = 164). Variables were measured using Servant Leadership Scale, Organizational Culture Scale, and Employee Creativity Scale. Data analysis was performed using Hayes’ mediation model on SPSS PROCESS Macro. Results showed that servant leadership was positively correlated with innovative culture and employee creativity. Innovative culture was a significant mediator to the relationship between servant leadership and employee creativity. This study highlights the importance of considering contextual factors in improving employee creativity.

Keywords

employee creativity innovative culture servant leadership work from home WFH budaya inovatif KDR kerja dari rumah kreativitas karyawan kepemimpinan melayani

Article Details

How to Cite
Pratita, C. P., & Salendu, A. (2021). The relationship between servant leadership and employee creativity: Role of innovative culture as mediator. Jurnal Psikologi Ulayat: Indonesian Journal of Indigenous Psychology. https://doi.org/10.24854/jpu432

References

  1. Ali, M., & Park, K. (2016). The mediating role of an innovative culture in the relationship between absorptive capacity and technical and non-technical innovation. Journal of Business Research, 69(5), 1669–1675. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.10.036
  2. Amabile, T. M., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J., & Herron, M. (1996). Assessing the work environment for creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 39(5), 1154–1184. https://doi.org/10.2307/256995
  3. Amir, D. A., & Santoso, C. B. (2019). Examining a servant leadership construct and its influence on organizational citizenship behavior Faculty of Economics and Business. Jurnal Siasat Bisnis, 23(1), 37–49.
  4. Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. Wiley.
  5. Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with amos: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). Taylor and Francis Group.
  6. Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (1999). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture: Based on competing values framework. Addison-Wesley Publishing.
  7. Deshpandé, R., Farley, J. U., & Webster, F. E. (1993). Corporate culture, customer orientation, and innovativeness in Japanese firms: A quadrad analysis. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 23–37. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452231426.n4
  8. Deshpandé, R., & Webster, F. E. (1989). Organizational culture and marketing: Defining the research agenda. Journal of Marketing, 53(1), 3–15.
  9. Dul, J., & Ceylan, C. (2011). Work environments for employee creativity. Ergonomics, 54(1), 12–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2010.542833
  10. Etikan, I., Musa, S. A., & Alkassim, R. S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 5(1), 1–4. https://doi.org/https://10.11648/j.ajtas.20160501.11
  11. Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175–191. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193146
  12. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39–50. https://doi.org/https://10.1177/002224378101800104
  13. Forum Human Capital Indonesia. (2020). Membangun SDM unggul melalui AKHLAK BUMN (2nd ed.) [e-magazine]. Human Capital Insight. https://fhcibumn.com/assets/download/e-magazine vol-2.pdf
  14. Greenleaf, R. K. (1977). Servant leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. Paulist Press.
  15. Gupta, V., & Singh, S. (2013). How leaders impact employee creativity: A study of Indian R&D laboratories. Management Research Review, 36(1), 66–88. https://doi.org/10.1108/01409171311284594
  16. Gupta, V., & Singh, S. (2015). Leadership and creative performance behaviors in R&D laboratories: Examining the mediating role of justice perceptions. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 22(1), 21–36. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051813517002
  17. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Press.
  18. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structure Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
  19. Jaiswal, N. J., & Dhar, R. L. (2017). The influence of servant leadership, trust in leader and thriving on employee creativity. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 38(1), 2–21. https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-02-2015-0017
  20. Khalili, A. (2016). Linking transformational leadership, creativity, innovation, and innovation-supportive climate. Management Decision, 54(9), 2277-2293. https://doi.org/10.1108/MD-03-2016-0196
  21. Khan, M. A., Ismail, F. B., Hussain, A., & Alghazali, B. (2020). The interplay of leadership styles, innovative work behavior, organizational culture, and organizational citizenship behavior. SAGE Open, 10(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019898264
  22. Khan, M. J., Aslam, N., & Riaz, M. (2012). Leadership styles as predictors of innovative work behavior. Pakistan Journal of Social Science and Clinical Psychology, 9(2), 17–22.
  23. Kotter, J. P., & Heskket, J. L. (1992). Corporate culture and performance. Free Press.
  24. La Prade, A., Mertens, J., Moore, T., & Wright, A. (2019). The enterprise guide to closing the skills gap. IBM Corporation. https://www.ibm.com/thought-leadership/institute-business-value/report/closing-skills-gap
  25. Lægreid, P., Roness, P. G., & Verhoest, K. (2011). Explaining the innovative culture and activities of state agencies. Organization Studies, 32(10), 1321–1347. https://doi.org/10.1177/0170840611416744
  26. Li, H., Jin, H., & Chen, T. (2018). Linking proactive personality to creative performance: The role of job crafting and high-involvement work systems. Journal of Creative Behavior, 54(1), 196–210. https://doi.org/10.1002/jocb.355
  27. Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Liao, C., & Meuser, J. D. (2014). Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. Academy of Management Journal, 57(5), 1434–1452. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2013.0034
  28. Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Meuser, J. D., Hu, J., Wu, J., & Liao, C. (2015). Servant leadership: Validation of a short form of the SL-28. Leadership Quarterly, 26(2), 254–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.12.002
  29. Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Zhao, H., & Henderson, D. (2008). Servant leadership: Development of a multidimensional measure and multi-level assessment. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(2), 161–177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.01.006
  30. Newman, A., Neesham, C., Manville, G., & Tse, H. H. M. (2017). Examining the influence of servant and entrepreneurial leadership on the work outcomes of employees in social enterprises. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(20), 2905–2926. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2017.1359792
  31. Ogbonna, E., & Harris, L. C. (2000). Leadership style, organizational culture and performance: Empirical evidence from UK companies. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11(4), 766–788. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190050075114
  32. Palomino, P. R., & de Lara, P. Z. M. (2020). How and when servant leaders fuel creativity: The role of servant attitude and intrinsic motivation. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102537
  33. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903.
  34. Purba, D. E., & Fawzi, A. R. (2019). The effects of perceived supervisor support and servant leadership on voluntary turnover. Humaniora, 10(3), 211–217. https://doi.org/10.21512/humaniora.v10i3.5818
  35. Ratcheva, V. S., & Leopold, T. (2018). 5 things to know about the future of jobs. World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/09/future-of-jobs-2018-things-to-know/
  36. Sendjaya, S., & Pekerti, A. (2010). Servant leadership as antecedent of trust in organizations. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 31(7), 643–663. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437731011079673
  37. Shalley, C. E., & Gilson, L. L. (2004). What leaders need to know: A review of social and contextual factors that can foster or hinder creativity. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(1), 33–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2003.12.004
  38. Sultika, B., & Hartijasti, Y. (2017). Faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi kreativitas dan orientasi inovasi di tempat bekerja. Jurnal Riset Bisnis Dan Manajemen Tirtayasa, 1(2), 179–199. https://doi.org/10.48181/jrbmt.v1i2.3036
  39. Suryani, A. O., van de Vijver, F. J. R., Poortiga, Y. H., & Setiadi, B. N. (2012). Indonesian leadership styles: A mixed-methods approach. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 15(4), 290-303. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-839X.2012.01384.x
  40. Taha, V., Sirková, M., & Ferencová, M. (2016). The impact of organizational culture on creativity and innovation. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 14(1), 7–17. https://doi.org/10.17512/pjms.2016.14.1.01
  41. van Dierendonck, D. (2011). Servant leadership: A review and synthesis. Journal of Management, 37(4), 1228–1261. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206310380462
  42. Wahyu, A. M., & Sa’id, M. (2020). Produktivitas selama work from home: Sebuah analisis psikologi sosial. Jurnal Kependudukan Indonesia, 15(2), 53–60. https://doi.org/10.14203/jki.v0i0.570
  43. Yang, J., Gu, J., & Liu, H. (2019). Servant leadership and employee creativity: The roles of psychological empowerment and work–family conflict. Current Psychology, 38(6), 1417–1427. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-019-0161-3
  44. Yang, J., Liu, H., & Gu, J. (2017). A multi-level study of servant leadership on creativity: The roles of self-efficacy and power distance. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 38(5), 610–629. https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-10-2015-0229
  45. Yoshida, D. T., Sendjaya, S., Hirst, G., & Cooper, B. (2014). Does servant leadership foster creativity and innovation? A multi-level mediation study of identification and prototypicality. Journal of Business Research, 67(7), 1395–1404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.08.013
  46. Yu, P. L. (2017). Innovative culture and professional skills: The use of supportive leadership and individual power distance orientation in IT industry. International Journal of Manpower, 38(2), 198–214. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJM-10-2014-0214
  47. Zhou, J., & George, J. M. (2001). When job dissatisfaction leads to creativity: Encouraging the expression of voice. Academy of Management Journal, 44(4), 682–696. https://doi.org/10.2307/3069410
  48. Zou, W. C., Tian, Q., & Liu, J. (2015). Servant leadership, social exchange relationships, and follower’s helping behavior: Positive reciprocity belief matters. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 51, 147–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2015.08.012