Gender and personality differences in self-estimated intelligence


  • Hanif Akhtar Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Indonesia
  • Silfiasari Silfiasari Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Indonesia


big five personality, gender, self-estimated intelligence


Self-estimated intelligence is an underresearched topic in Indonesia. In fact, self-estimated intelligence is an important thing as it describes an individual's metacognitive processes and it has a crucial role in academic and workplace. The purpose of this study was to determine the self-estimated intelligence in terms of gender and big five personality traits. The study was conducted through a quantitative survey to 265 college students (Mage = 19.40; SD = .98). The instrument used was the Self-Estimated Intelligence Scale and the IPIP-BFM-25 to measure the big five personality. The results showed that men had higher self-estimated intelligence than women. Multiple regression analysis showed that the three predictors of personality facets (agreeableness, conscientiousness, and intellect) positively predict self-estimated intelligence. Conscientiousness is the strongest predictor of self-estimated intelligence, followed by agreeableness and intellect.


Download data is not yet available.


Ackerman, P. L., Beier, M. E., & Boyle, M. O. (2005). Working memory and intelligence: The same or different constructs? Psychological Bulletin, 131(1), 30–60.

Ackerman, P. L., & Wolman, S. D. (2007). Determinants and validity of self-estimates of abilities and self-concept measures. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 13(2), 57–78.

Akhtar, H., & Azwar, S. (2018). Development and validation of a short scale for measuring big five personality traits: The IPIP-BFM-25 Indonesia. Journal of Innovation in Psychology, Education and Didactics, 22(2), 167–174.

Bipp, T., & Kleingeld, A. (2012). Self-estimates of intelligence: Interaction effects of the comparison to a specific reference group and neuroticism. Psychological Reports, 110(2), 403–415.

Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). The five-factor model of personality and its relevance to personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorder, 6(4), 343-359.

Ehrlinger, J., & Dunning, D. (2003). How chronic self-views influence (and potentially mislead) estimates of performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(1), 5–17.

Furnham, A. (2001). Self-estimates of intelligence: Culture and gender difference in self and other estimates of both general (g) and multiple intelligences. Personality and Individual Differences, 31(8), 1381–1405.

Furnham, A., & Fukumoto, S. (2008). Japanese parents’ estimates of their own and their children’s multiple intelligences: Cultural modesty and moderate differentiation. Japanese Psychological Research, 50(2), 63–76.

Furnham, A., & Grover, S. (2020). Correlates of self-estimated intelligence. Journal of Intelligence, 8(1), 2–10.

Furnham, A., & Thomas, C. (2004). Parents’ gender and personality and estimates of their own and their children’s intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 37(5), 887–903.

Furnham, A., Wytykowska, A., & Petrides, K. V. (2005). Estimates of multiple intelligences: A study in Poland. European Psychologist, 10(1), 51–59.

Gignac, G. E., Stough, C., & Loukomitis, S. (2004). Openness, intelligence, and self-report intelligence. Intelligence, 32(2), 133–143.

Gold, B., & Kuhn, J. T. (2017). A longitudinal study on the stability of self-estimated intelligence and its relationship to personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 106, 292–297.

Goldberg, L. R. (1992). The development of markers for the Big-Five factor structure. Psychological Assessment, 4(1), 26–42.

Herreen, D., & Zajac, I. (2017). The reliability and validity of a self-report measure of cognitive abilities in older adults: More personality than cognitive function. Journal of Intelligence, 6(1), 1-15.

Holling, H., & Preckel, F. (2005). Self-estimates of intelligence - Methodological approaches and gender differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 38(3), 503–517.

Ivcevic, Z., & Kaufman, J. C. (2013). The can and cannot do attitude: How self-estimates of ability vary across ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Learning and Individual Differences, 27, 144–148.

JASP Team (2020). JASP (Version 0.14.1) [Computer software].

Kang, W., & Furnham, A. (2016). Gender and personality differences in the self-estimated intelligence of Koreans. Psychology, 7(8), 1043–1052.

Kaufman, J. C. (2012). Self estimates of general, crystallized, and fluid intelligences in an ethnically diverse population. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(1), 118–122.

Kornilova, T. V., & Novikova, M. A. (2012). Self-assessed intelligence, personality, and psychometric intelligence: Preliminary validation of a model with a selected student population. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 33–49.

Lee, N. Y. L. (2017). Cross-cultural differences in thinking: Some thoughts on psychological paradigms. Dalam T. -W. Hung & T. J. Lane (Eds.), Rationality: Constraints and contexts (hlm. 61-73). Elsevier.

Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224–253.

McGrew, K. S. (2009). CHC theory and the human cognitive abilities project: Standing on the shoulders of the giants of psychometric intelligence research. Intelligence, 37(1), 1–10.

Mirjalili, R. S., Farahani, H. A., & Akbari, Z. (2011). Self-esteem as moderator of the relationship between self-estimated general intelligence and psychometric intelligence. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 649–653.

Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hil.

Paulhus, D. L., Lysy, D. C., & Yik, M. S. M. (1998). Self-report measures of intelligence: Are they useful as proxy IQ tests? Journal of Personality, 66(4), 525–554.

Rammstedt, B., & Rammsayer, T. H. (2002). Self-estimated intelligence: Gender differences, relationship to psychometric intelligence and moderating effects of level of education. European Psychologist, 7(4), 275–284.

Schlösser, T., Dunning, D., Johnson, K. L., & Kruger, J. (2013). How unaware are the unskilled? Empirical tests of the “signal extraction” counterexplanation for the Dunning-Kruger effect in self-evaluation of performance. Journal of Economic Psychology, 39, 85–100.

Schneider, W. J., & McGrew, K. S. (2012). The Cattell-Horn-Carroll model of intelligence. Dalam D. P. Flanagan & P. L. Harrison (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests and issues (3rd ed., hlm. 553-581). The Guilford Press.

Schneider, W. J., & McGrew, K. S. (2018). The Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of cognitive abilities. Dalam D. P. Flanagan & M. E. McDonough (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (4th ed., hlm. 73–163). The Guilford Press.

Spinath, B., Spinath, F. M., Harlaar, N., & Plomin, R. (2006). Predicting school achievement from general cognitive ability, self-perceived ability, and intrinsic value. Intelligence, 34(4), 363–374.

Stieger, S., Kastner, C. K., Voracek, M., Von Stumm, S., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Furnham, A. (2010). Independent effects of personality and sex on selfestimated intelligence: Evidence from Austria. Psychological Reports, 107(2), 553–563.

Storek, J., & Furnham, A. (2013). Gender, g, gender identity concepts, and self-constructs as predictors of the self-estimated IQ. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 174(6), 664–676.

Syzmanowicz, A., & Furnham, A. (2011). Gender differences in self-estimates of general, mathematical, spatial and verbal intelligence: Four meta analyses. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(5), 493–504.

von Stumm, S., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Furnham, A. (2009). Decomposing self-estimates of intelligence: Structure and sex differences across 12 nations. British Journal of Psychology, 100(2), 429–442.

Zhang, Y., & Gong, Y. (2001). Self-estimated intelligence and its related factors. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 9, 193–195.



How to Cite

Akhtar, H., & Silfiasari, S. (2022). Gender and personality differences in self-estimated intelligence. Jurnal Psikologi Ulayat, 9(2), 373–389.



Original Research

Citation Check