Forgiveness of the family victims of bomb explosion in Surabaya
Keywords:anger, forgiveness, post-traumatic, sadness, technological disaster
Technological disasters resulting in the death of family members can cause deep sadness and anger to individuals. Despite causing deep psychological trauma, individuals perceive and react differently towards the incidents. The purpose of this study is to describe forgiveness process of individuals who lost family members (children and spouses) in the bomb terror incident in Surabaya. This study used a deductive qualitative method to two participants, with interpersonal process of forgiveness and unforgiveness theory as framework. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis strategy. Four main themes emerged from the study related to the forgiveness fo the victims: personal context (personality trait and religious commitment), post-event perception, emotional responses, and behavioral responses. The study demonstrated that forgiveness is a unique process, which is experienced differently among individuals, depending on their personality traits, religious commitments, and perception of events which then affect the emotional response and behavior of individuals towards the transgressors.
Ajmal, A., Amin, R., & Bajwa, R. S. (2016). Personality traits as predictors of forgiveness and gratitude. Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences, 14(2), 91-95.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
Creswell, J. W. (2015). Penelitian kualitatif & desain riset: Memilih di antara lima pendekatan. Pustaka Pelajar.
Enright, R. D. (1991). The moral development of forgiveness. Dalam W. Kurtines & J. Gewirtz (Eds.), Handbook of moral behavior and development (hlm. 123-152). Erlbaum.
Enright, R. D. (1996). Counseling within the forgiveness triad: On forgiving, receiving forgiveness, and self-forgiveness. Journal of Counseling and Values, 40(2), 107-126.
Exline, J. J. (2010). Anger toward God: A new frontier in the study of forgiveness. Dalam M. R Maamri, N. Verbim & E. L. Worthington, Jr. (Eds.), A journey through forgiveness (hlm. 29-37). Oxford University Press.
Exline, J. J., Park, C. L., Smyth, J. M., & Carey, M. P. (2011). Anger toward God: Social-cognitive predictors, prevalence, and links with adjustment to bereavement and cancer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(1), 129-148. doi: 10.1037/a0021716
Exline, J. J., Yali, A. M., & Lobel, M. (1999). When God disappoints: Difficulty forgiving God and its role in negative emotion. Journal of Health Psychology, 4(3), 365-379.
Gerber, M. M., Boals, A., & Schuettler, D. (2011). The unique contributions of positive and negative religious coping to posttraumatic growth and PTSD. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 3(4), 298-307. doi: 10.1037/a0023016
Hall, J. H., & Fincham, F. D. (2005). Self-forgiveness: The stepchild of forgiveness research. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(5), 621-637.
Islam, S. (2018). Warga tolak jenazah 1 keluarga terduga teroris dimakamkan di Surabaya. Okenews. Ditemu kembali dari https://news.okezone.com/read/2018/05/14/519/1898261/ warga-tolak-jenazah-1-keluarga-terduga-teroris-dimakamkan-di-surabaya.
John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. Dalam L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (hlm. 102-138). Guildford Press.
Kami, I. M. (2018). 11 korban tewas, ini yang diketahui dari ledakan bom di Surabaya. Detik News. Ditemu kembali dari https://news.detik.com/berita/d-4018147/11-korban-tewas-ini-yang-diketahui-dari-ledakan-bom-di-surabaya
Kholik, A., & Himam, F. (2015). Konsep psikoterapi kawruh jiwa Ki Ageng Suryomentaram. Gadjah Mada Journal of Psychology, 1(2), 120-134. doi: 10.22146/gamajop.7349
Kisah haru Wenny, ibunda Evan & Nathan maafkan pelaku bom bunuh diri. (2018). Merdeka.com. Ditemu kembali dari https://www.merdeka.com/peristiwa/kisah-haru-wenny-ibunda-evan-nathan-maafkan-pelaku-bom-bunuh-diri.html
Lopez, S. J., Pedrotti, J. T., & Snyder, C. R. (2019). Positive psychology: The scientific and practical explorations of human strengths. Sage Publications.
Martin?eková, L., & Klatt, J. (2016). Mothers’ grief, forgiveness, and posttraumatic growth after the loss of a child. OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying, 75(3), 248-265.
McCullough, M. E. (2000). Forgiveness as human strength: Theory, measurement, and links to well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19(1), 43-55.
McCullough, M. E. (2001). Forgiveness: Who does it and how do they do it? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(6), 194-197.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Davis, C. G. (1999). “Thanks for sharing that”: Ruminators and their social support networks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(4), 801-814. doi: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1241
Oliver, K. (2002). Psychology in practice: Environment. Hodden Anor.
Poerwandari, K. (2007). Pendekatan kualitatif untuk penelitian perilaku manusia. LPSP3.
Prigerson, H. G., Horowitz, M. J., Jacobs, S.C., Parkes, C. M., Aslan, M., Goodkin, K., & Maciejewski, P. K. (2009). Prolonged grief disorder: Psychometric validation of criteria proposed for DSM-V and ICD-11. PLoS Medicine, 6(8), e1000121. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000121
Ronel, N., & Lebel, U. (2006). When parents lay their children to rest: Between anger and forgiveness. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 23(4), 507-522.
Saka, Y., & Cohen-Louck, K. (2014). From demonization to identification: How parents who lost children in terrorist attacks perceive the attacker. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 19(2), 137-154.
Schulenberg, S. E. (2016). Disaster mental health and positive psychology–considering the context of natural and technological disasters: An introduction to the special issue. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(12), 1223-1233.
Worthington Jr., E. L. (2005). Initial questions about the art and science of forgiving. Dalam E. L. Worthington Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of forgiveness (hlm. 1-13). Brunner-Routledge.
Worthington Jr., E. L., & Wade, N. G. (1999). The psychology of unforgiveness and forgiveness and implications for clinical practice. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 18(4), 385-418.
Zamuner, E. (2015). Emotions as psychological reactions. Mind and Language, 30(1), 22-43.
How to Cite
The authors agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) for the exposure of their work with an acknowledgement of Jurnal Psikologi Ulayat: Indonesian Journal of Indigenous Psychology (JPU) as an outlet of their published work.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.