Main Article Content


Involvement in various organizational activities may positively or negatively affect students’ psychological well-being (PWB). Hardiness, which involves  commitment, control, and openness towards challenges, is the psychological trait that is considered essential for an effective problem solving, and is believed to be necessary in order to take the most positive advantage of organizational involvement. The present study aimed to examine the changes in the PWB scores of students who were involved in organizational activities after undergoing hardiness training; it also aims at exploring the relationship between hardiness and PWB. Participants were 20 university students aged 18 to 22 years old who were involved in student organizations. Quantitative data analysis was conducted using Wilcoxon and Spearman nonparametric tests. Results showed that there was a significant increase in the PWB scores after participating in the hardiness training. The study also found a positive correlation between hardiness and PWB.


kesejahteraan psikologis ketangguhan pelatihan Unit Kegiatan Mahasiswa hardiness psychological well being student organization activities training

Article Details

How to Cite
Widhigdo, J. C., Ahuluheluw, J. M., & Pandjaitan, L. N. (2020). The hardiness training to improve psychological well-being of the members of student organization at Universitas Surabaya. Jurnal Psikologi Ulayat: Indonesian Journal of Indigenous Psychology, 7(2), 122–139.


  1. Alfred, G., Hammer, J., & Good, G. (2014). Male student veterans: Hardiness, psychological well being and masculine norms. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 15, 95-99.
  2. Amiruddin. (2017). Analisis faktor-faktor penyebab tingkat kejadian stres pada mahasiswa fakultas kedokteran Universitas Hasanuddin angkatan 2015 (Skripsi tidak dipublikasikan). Universitas Hasanuddin, Indonesia.
  3. Anggoro, A. (2016). Hubungan keaktifan berorganisasi dengan prokrastinasi akademik dan indeks prestasi kumulatif mahasiswa tahun ketiga fakultas kedokteran Universitas Lampung (Skripsi tidak dipublikasikan). Universitas Lampung, Indonesia.
  4. Ausie, R., Wardani, R., & Selly. (2017). Hubungan antara hardiness dan kesejahteraan psikologis pada calon bintara Korps Wanita Angkatan Darat (KOWAD) di pusat pendidikan KOWAD Bandung. Humanitas, 1(3), 10.
  5. Bartone, P. T., & Hystad, S. W. (2010). Increasing mental hardiness for stress resilience in operational settings. Dalam P. T. Bartone, B. H. Johnsen, J. Eid, J. M. Violanti, & J. C. Laberg (Ed.), Enhancing human performance in security operations (hal. 257-272). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
  6. Beleaua, R. E., & Cocorad?, E. (2016). Procrastination, stress and coping in students and employees. Romanian Journal of Experimental Applied Psychology, 7(1), 1-6.
  7. Bonanno, G. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? The American Psychologist, 59, 20-28.
  8. Cahyaningtyas, A. Y. (2010). Perbedaan kecerdasan emosional berdasarkan status keikutsertaan dalam organisasi ekstrakulikuler pada mahasiswa di kebidanan (Skripsi tidak dipublikasikan). Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia.
  9. Cerezo, A., Galian, A., Tarroja, M., Mañalac, G., & Ysmael, M. (2015). Breaking news: How hardiness moderates the impact of burnout on the PWB of Filipino journalists covering disasters and emergencies. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 48(2), 19.
  10. De Ridder, D., Lensvelt-Mulders, G., Finkenauer, C., Stok, F. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (2012). Taking stock of self-control: A meta-analysis of how trait self-control relates to a wide range of behaviors. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 16(1), 76–99. doi: 10.1177/1088868311418749
  11. Eschleman, K., Bowling, N., & Alarcon, G. (2010). A meta-analytic examination of hardiness. International Journal of Stress Management, 17(4), 277-366. doi: 10.1037/a0020476
  12. Finkel, E. J., & Campbell, W. K. (2001). Self-control and accommodation in close relationships: An interdependence analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(2), 263-277. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.81.2.263
  13. Florian, V., Mikulincer, M., & Taubman, O. (1995). Does hardiness contribute to mental health during a stressful real-life situation? The roles of appraisal and coping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 687-695. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.68.4.687
  14. Freire, C., Ferradás, M. M., Valle, A., Núñez, J. C., & Vallejo, G. (2016). Profiles of PWB and coping strategies among university students. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1-11. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01554
  15. Funk, S. (1992). Hardiness: A review of theory and research. Health Psychology, 11(5), 335-345. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.11.5.335
  16. Garcia, D., & Siddiqui, A. (2009). Adolescents’ affective temperaments: Life satisfaction, interpretation, and memory of events. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(2), 155-167. doi: 10.1080/17439760802399349
  17. Hussain, I., & Sultan, S. (2010). Analysis of procrastination among university students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 1897-1904. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.385
  18. Jayervand, H., Ahdi, H., Mazaheri, M., Talebi, H., & Manshaee, Q. (2013). Prediction of suicide ideation based on PWB and religious spiritual determinants among the individuals with attempted suicide. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 3(8), 587-590.
  19. Khoshaba, D. M., & Maddi, S. R. (1999). Early experiences in hardiness development. Consulting Psychology Journal, 51, 106-116.
  20. Khoshaba, D. M., & Maddi, S. R. (2001). HardiTraining. Newport Beach, CA: Hardiness Institute.
  21. Kobasa, S. C., Maddi, S. R., & Kahn, S. (1982). Hardiness and health: A prospective study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42(1), 168-177. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.42.1.168
  22. Maddi, S. R. (1987). Hardiness training at illinois bell telephone. Open Acces Library Journal, 3(8), 101-115.
  23. Maddi, S. R. (1999). The personality construct of hardiness: I, effect on experiencing, coping and strain. Consulting psychology Journal, 51, 83-94.
  24. Maddi, S. R. (2004). Hardiness: An operationalization of existential courage. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 44, 279-298.
  25. Maddi, S. R. (2005). On hardiness and other pathways to resilience. American Psychologist, 60(3), 261-262. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.60.3.261
  26. Maddi, S. R. (2006). Hardiness: The courage to grow from stresses. Journal of Positive Psychology, 1, 160-168. doi: 10.1177/0022167804266101
  27. Maddi, S. R., Khosaba, D. M., & Pammenter, A. (1999). The hardy organization: Success by turning change to advantages. Consulting Psychology Journal, 51, 117-124.
  28. Maltin, E. R. (2011). Workplace commitment and employee well-being: A meta-analysis and study of commitment profiles (Tesis tidak dipublikasikan). The University of Western Ontario, Canada.
  29. Maryam, G. A., Shohre, G. S., & Javad, K. (2013). Effectiveness of hardiness training on anxiety and quality of life of pregnancy women. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 1785-1789.
  30. Mathis, M., & Lecci, L. (1999). Hardiness and college adjustment: Identifying students in need of services. Journal of College Student Development, 40, 305-309.
  31. Mayasari, L. (2007). Prokrastinasi akademik pada mahasiswa aktivis organisasi (Skripsi tidak dipublikasikan). Universitas Muhammadiyah, Indonesia.
  32. Nayyeri, M., & Aubi, S. (2011). Prediction well-being on basic components of hardiness. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1571-1575. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.305
  33. Ofori, I. N., Addai, P., Avor, J., & Quaye, M. G. (2018). Too much academic stress: Implication on interpersonal relationships and PWB among final year University of Ghana student. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, 2(3), 1-7. doi: 10.9734/AJESS/2018/43193
  34. Proctor, C., Linley, P. A., & Maltby, J. (2009). Youth life satisfaction measures: A review. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(2), 128-144. doi: 10.1080/17439760802650816
  35. Rangkuti, F. (2004). Analisis SWOT teknik membedah kasus bisnis. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
  36. Righetti, F., & Finkenauer, C. (2011). If you are able to control yourself, I will trust you: The role of perceived self-control in interpersonal trust. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(5), 874-886. doi: 10.1037/a0021827
  37. Ryff, C. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of PWB. Journal of Personality and Social Psychological, 57(6), 1060-1081.
  38. Sahari, S. H., Yaman, Y. M., & Awang-Shuib, A. (2012). Environmental stress among part time students in Sarawak. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 36, 96-102.
  39. Sandvik, A. M., Hansen, A. L., Hystad, S. W., Johnsen, B. H., & Bartone, P. T. (2015). Psychopathy, anxiety, and resiliency – Psychological hardiness as a mediator of the psychopathy–anxiety relationship in a prison setting. Personality and Individual Differences, 72, 30-34. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.08.009
  40. Skomorovsky, A., & Sudom, K. (2011). Role of hardiness in the PWB of Canadian forces officer candidates. Military Medicine, 176(1), 7-12. doi: 10.7205/milmed-d-10-00325
  41. Sugiyono. (2004). Statistika untuk penelitian. Bandung: Alfabeta.
  42. Suleman, Q., Hussain, I., Shehzad, S., Syed, M., & Raja, S. (2018). Relationship between perceived occupational stress and PWB among secondary school heads in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. PLoS ONE, 13(12), 1-22. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208143
  43. Tangney, J. P., Baumeister, R. F., & Boone, A. L. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality, 72(2), 271-324.
  44. Tarkhan, M., Safdari, S., Fallah, S., Paknahad, Z., Rezaei, A., Nezamiv, ... Sargolzaei, M. (2012). The effect of hardiness training of self esteem and social adjustment among addicted men in rudsar of Iran. Indian journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 2(3), 94-99.
  45. Tierney, M. J., & Lavelle, M. (1997). An investigation into modification of personality hardiness in staff nurses. Journal of Nursing Staff Development, 13, 212-217.
  46. Yikealo, D., Tareke, W., & Karvinen, I. (2018). The level of stress among college students: A case in the college of education, Eritrea Institute of Technology. Open Science Journal, 3(4), 1-18.