The power of positivity: The roles of prosocial behavior and social support toward gratitude

  • Taufik Akbar Rizqi Yunanto Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Surabaya
Keywords: gratitude, Indonesia, prosocial behavior, social support

Abstract

Existing literature demonstrates that gratefulness is a critical determinant for individuals’ well-being and their quality of interpersonal relationships. A sense of gratefulness provides a perspective in which individuals could have a positive evaluation in life, including the way they view challenges. Positive appreciation of life’s challenges would allow individuals to increase their coping ability and would motivate them to do prosocial behavior. This study aims to determine the role of prosocial behavior and social support to individuals’ sense of gratefulness. Participants in this study consisted of 250 participants aged between 13–55 years old. The instruments used in this research were Gratitude Questionnaire, Philosophies of Human Nature Altruism Scale, and Social Support Scale. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The result revealed a strong contribution between prosocial behavior and social support toward gratitude. Gratitude and prosocial behavior contribute in enabling individuals to have a positive evaluation oflife.

References

Bandura, A. (2012). On the functional properties of perceived self-efficacy revisited. Journal of Management, 38(1), 9-44.

Baron, R. A., & Branscombe, N. R. (2012). Social psychology (13rd ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.

Baron, R. A., & Byrne, D. (2005). Psikologi sosial. Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga.

Bartal, I. B. A., Decety, J., & Mason, P. (2011). Empathy and pro-social behavior in rats. Science, 334(6061), 1427-1430.

Bergsma, A., & Ardelt, M. (2012). Self-reported wisdom and happiness: An empirical investigation. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13(3), 481-499.

Berns, N. S. (2017). Framing the victim: Domestic violence, media, and social problems. New York, NY: Routledge.

Bono, G., Emmons, R. A., & Mccullough, M. E. (2012). Gratitude in practice and the practice of gratitude. Positive Psychology in Practice, 29, 464–481. doi:10.1002/9780470939338.ch29.

Bono, G., & McCullough, M. E. (2006). Positive responses to benefit and harm: Bringing forgiveness and gratitude into cognitive psychotherapy. Journal of cognitive Psychotherapy, 20(2), 147.

Burns, G. W. (Ed.). (2010). Happiness, healing, enhancement: Your casebook collection for using positive psychotherapy. Hoboken: Wiley.

Cohen, S. E., & Syme, S. L. (1985). Social support and health. New York, NY: Academic Press.

Colbran, N. (2010). Realities and challenges in realising freedom of religion or belief in Indonesia. The International Journal of Human Rights, 14(5), 678-704.

Compton, W. C., & Hoffman, E. (2012). Positive psychology: The science of happiness and flourishing (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Diener, E., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Very happy people. Psychological Science, 13(1), 81-84. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00415

Eisenberg, N., & Mussen, P. H. (1989). The roots of prosocial behavior in children. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Emmons, R. A. (2007). Thanks: How the new science of gratitude can make you happier. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Emmons, R. A., & Kneezel, T. T. (2005). Giving thanks: Spiritual and religious. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 24(2), 140-148.

Emmons, R. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 377-389.

Hayes, N. (2000). Doing psychological research. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis Group.

Janssens, J. M., & Deković, M. (1997). Child rearing, prosocial moral reasoning, and prosocial behaviour. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 20(3), 509-527.

Krause, N. (2006). Gratitude toward God, stress, and health in late life. Research on Aging, 28(2), 163-183.

McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. A. (2004). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 112–127. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.82.1.112

McGrath, B., Brennan, M. A., Dolan, P., & Barnett, R. (2009). Adolescent well‐being and supporting contexts: A comparison of adolescents in Ireland and Florida. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 19(4), 299-320.

Passer, M. W., & Smith, R. E. (2009). Development over the life span. In Psychology: The science of mind and behavior. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification (Vol. 1). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Pew Research. (2008). Unfavourable views of Jews and Muslims in the increase in Europe. Retrieved from http://www.pewglobal.org/2008/09/17/chapter-2-religiousness/.

Pulkkinen, L., Nygren, H., & Kokko, K. (2002). Successful development: Childhood antecedents of adaptive psychosocial functioning in adulthood. Journal of Adult Development, 9(4), 251-265.

Seligman, M. E. (2002). Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy. Handbook of Positive Psychology, 2(2002), 3-12.

Selistiowati, A. (2010). Hubungan persepsi siswa terhadap guru dan dukungan sosial teman sebaya dengan motivasi belajar matematika (Unpublished thesis). Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Stukas, A. A., Snyder, M., & Clary, E. G. (2016). Understanding and encouraging volunteerism and community involvement. The Journal of Social Psychology, 156, 243–255. doi:10.1080/00224545.2016.1153328

Sunarwiyati, S. (1985). Pengukuran sikap masyarakat terhadap kenakalan remaja di DKI Jakarta (Laporan penelitian). Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia.

Sutrisno, M., & Putranto, H. (2005). Teori-teori kebudayaan. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.

Tahmasbipour, N., & Taheri, A. (2012). A survey on the relation between social support and mental health in students Shahid Rajaee University. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 5-9.

Vailant, G. (2000). The mature defenses: Antecedents of joy. American Psychologist, 55, 89-98.

Watkins, P. C. (2013). Gratitude and the good life: Toward a psychology of appreciation. Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media.

Weinstein, N., DeHaan, C. R., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). Attributing autonomous versus introjected motivation to helpers and the recipient experience: Effects on gratitude, attitudes, and well-being. Motivation and Emotion, 34(4), 418-431.

Williamson, G. M., & Clark, M. S. (1992). Impact of desired relationship type on affective reactions to choosing and being required to help. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18(1), 10-18.

Wood, A. M., Joseph, S., & Maltby, J. (2008). Gratitude uniquely predicts satisfaction with life: Incremental validity above the domains and facets of the five factor model. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 49-54.

Wrightsman Jr, L. S. (1964). Measurement of philosophies of human nature. Psychological Reports, 14(3), 743-751.
Published
2020-06-16
How to Cite
Yunanto, T. (2020, June 16). The power of positivity: The roles of prosocial behavior and social support toward gratitude. Jurnal Psikologi Ulayat: Indonesian Journal of Indigenous Psychology, 7(1), 57-68. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.24854/jpu100
Section
Original Research